False connections of the great vessels

I. Transposition of the great vessels (TGA)

A TGA can only be survived if an atrial or ventricular septal defect co-exists. Other False connections include:

  • Double inlet ventricle
  • Anomalous pulmonary vein returns
  • Truncus arteriosus communis




Posted on August 20, 2013 – 10:18pm

Content of the Thorax:

  • Mediastinum, 
  • Lungs
  • Chest wall


Posted on August 20, 2013 – 10:50pm

Cardiac defects without a shunt

1. Right Heart obstruction

Pulmonary stenosis (PS)

Obstructions can occur at various levels in the right side of the heart or in the pulmonary outflow path. Pure obstructions do not result in a mixing of the blood but cause a massive additional strain on the ventricles because they have to pump against increased resistance.

Introduction to Cardiac congenital defects

Posted on November 26, 2010 – 8:36pm

Congenital cardiac disorders, with an incidence of 1/1000 newborns, belong to the most frequent birth defects. Chromosomal aberrations are frequently associated with heart abnormalities.

Before we go on, please review here the development of the heart:

Cardiac Defects with a Right to Left Shunt (Cyanotic)

In cardiac abnormalities with right-left shunts oxygen-poor blood gets from the right half of the heart into the left side and thus into the systemic circulatory system. In most of the defects with right-left shunts the physiologic shunts present before birth remain functional because no reversal of pressure happens following birth.


Cyanosis is a blue coloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to the presence of greater than, or equal to, 2.5 g/dL of deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood vessels near the skin surface.

Syllabus of Clinical Thoracic and Cardiac Embryologic Problems with anatomic correlations

Posted on August 20, 2013 – 6:07pm

Case studies involving the thorax, mediastinum, embryology of the heart & circulatory systems

Anatomic and clinical reviews that will include basic symptoms and findings, diagnosis & treatment

Tufts University school of Medicine

Clinical Anatomy

Joan F. Tryzelaar, M.D., F.A.C.S, F.A.C.C.P.

 January, 2011

Before we go on to congenital heart problems, it is good to review how to get into the chest:

Clinical Case:

You have just been invited to participate in an operation. The surgeon plans a posterolateral thoracotomy to enter the chest.  He will tell you that he plans entry via the 6th intercostals interspace(Pearl: found two finger widths below the tip of the scapula).

Transposition of the Great Arteries

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a life-threatening malformation in neonates.

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